What Were the Fundamental Principles of Legalism Confucianism and Daoism

Die Analekten des Konfuzius. Confucius` ethical and moral teachings were written by his followers in this document. Legalists could be divided into three types. The first dealt with shi, or investing the position of ruler with power (not the person) and the need to obtain facts to govern well. The second dealt with laws, regulations and standards. This meant that all under the ruler were equal and that the state was governed by law, not by a ruler. The third was the concept of shu or tactics to ensure state security. Legalism generally competed with Confucianism, which advocated a just and reciprocal relationship between the state and its subjects. Mohism also stated that all people should be equal in their material benefits and protection from evil.

Society could be improved by functioning as an organism, with a unified moral compass. Those who were qualified were to be given jobs, and so the leader would be surrounded by people with talent and ability. An unjust leader would lead to seven disasters for the state, including neglect of military defense, oppression, illusions about force, distrust, starvation, and more. Being a good and virtuous person in all ordinary situations was the goal of Confucianism. This virtue was called “Jen,” and humans were considered perfectible and fundamentally good creatures. Ceremonies and rituals based on the five classics, especially the I Ching, were heavily introduced. Some ethical concepts were Yì (the moral disposition to do good), Lǐ (ritual norms for everyday life), and Zhì (the ability to see what is right in the behavior of others). Taoism advocated that the individual follow a mysterious force called The Way (Dao) of the universe and act in accordance with nature. Taoism emphasized the unity of all things and was strictly individualistic, unlike Confucianism, which advocated acting as society expected. Life force or body energy that supposedly flows through the body along the meridians. The book that forms the basis of Taoist philosophy. The basis of civil trials in imperial China and the Confucian canon.

They consist of the Book of Odes, the Book of Documents, the Book of Changes, the Book of Rites, and the Spring and Autumn Annals. Confucianism remained widespread in Han Dynasty China in 202 BC. J.-C. until the end of dynastic rule in 1911. It was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism during the Tang Dynasty (618–907) and became the basis for imperial trials. Representation of Shang Yang. Shang Yang was a legalistic reformer among the Qin. Although Confucianism and Taoism are the Chinese philosophies that survive the most to this day, a lesser-known philosophy called legalism was even more important in this early period.

This states that people are inherently evil and must be kept online by a strong state. After legalism, the state was much more important than the individual. While legalism believed that laws should be clear and public, and that everyone should be subject to them, it also asserted that rulers had supreme power and should use secrecy and secrecy to stay in power. Legalists also believed that society should strive to dominate other societies. The document in which the disciples of Confucius recorded his teachings. Confucius, who lived in the 6th century BC, was one of the leading Chinese philosophers. He regarded the Western Zhou period with its strong centralized state as an ideal. He was pragmatic and sought to reform the existing government by promoting a system of mutual duties between superiors and subordinates. Confucius emphasized tradition, believing that an individual should strive to be virtuous and respectful and conform to his or her place in society. After his death in 479 BC.

His followers wrote his ethical and moral teachings in the Mon-yü, or analects. Taoism as a religion emerged over time and involved the worship of gods and ancestors, the cultivation of “chi” energy, a system of morality, and the use of alchemy to achieve immortality. This is still in practice today. Another important philosopher at that time was Lao-tzu (also called Laozi), who founded Taoism (also called Taoism) along with Confucianism. Lao Tzu is a legendary figure – it is not known if he really existed. According to legend, Lao-tzu was born an old man around 604 BC. When he left home to live a life of solitude, the city porter asked him to write down his thoughts. He did this in a book called Tao Te Ching and was never seen again. Representation of Mozi. The Chinese philosopher who founded Mohism is shown here. Mohism emerged at about the same time as the other philosophies discussed here under the philosopher Mozi (c.

470-391 BC). The concept most commonly known under mohism was “impartial care,” also known as “universal love.” This meant that people also had to take care of others, regardless of their true relationship with that person. This contradicted the ideas of Confucianism, which held that love for close relationships should be greater. Mohism also emphasized the ideas of self-control, reflection, and authenticity. Lao Tzu. A representation of Lao-Tzu, the founder of Taoism.

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